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笔译翻译的标准有哪些?

2021-08-11 10:56:28 http://www.ybfyfw.com/ 53

1、源语言和目标语言某些词汇词性要适当转换。
1. The parts of speech of some words in the source language and the target language should be properly converted.
笔译翻译有时候因为语言环境和文化差异,不能完全按照源文件直接直译,根据语言信、达、雅的原则,需要适当改变译文词性才能让译文更具可读性。所以,译员在笔译翻译的过程中,要转换思路,学会名词和形容词、动词和名词、形容词和副词、动词和形容词之间的相互转换等等。
Sometimes, due to language environment and cultural differences, translation cannot be translated directly according to the source documents. According to the principles of language faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance, it is necessary to change the part of speech of the translation to make the translation more readable. Therefore, in the process of translation, translators should change their ideas, learn the conversion between nouns and adjectives, verbs and nouns, adjectives and adverbs, verbs and adjectives, and so on.
2、笔译翻译尽量采用短句
2. Try to use short sentences in translation
英文当中有很多句子非常长,要是完全按照英文句式来做的话,笔译翻译出来的中文则会拖着长长的定语或者状语。很容易造成句式杂糅或者病句,让读者理解起来非常困难。因此,面对这种情况,译员要合理分割句子主谓宾结构,将长句变为几个短句,以主从复合句的形式展现给读者。
There are many very long sentences in English. If you do it completely according to the English sentence pattern, the Chinese translated by translation will drag long attributives or adverbials. It is easy to cause mixed sentence patterns or sick sentences, which is very difficult for readers to understand. Therefore, in the face of this situation, translators should reasonably divide the subject predicate object structure of sentences, change long sentences into several short sentences, and show them to readers in the form of master-slave compound sentences.
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3、合理增删隐藏的句子成分
3. Reasonable addition and deletion of hidden sentence components
译员要恰到好处的增减隐藏的主谓宾句子成分,以达到句子精简而又不失原意的目的,由于语言环境和语言文化的差异,在源文件中有些语段直译的话可能句子结构就比较啰里啰嗦,而笔译翻译成目标语言这些又没有必要,因此在翻译过程中,有必要对有些内容在正确理解的基础上予以增加、重复或删减。
The translator should appropriately increase or decrease the hidden subject predicate object sentence components to achieve the purpose of sentence simplification without losing the original meaning. Due to the differences of language environment and language culture, the sentence structure of some paragraphs in the source document may be wordy, and it is not necessary to translate them into the target language. Therefore, in the process of translation, It is necessary to add, repeat or delete some contents on the basis of correct understanding.
4、学会直译的运用技巧
4. Learn the skills of literal translation
直译就是按照文字的字面意思直接笔译翻译过来,在笔译翻译过程中可能会出现特殊的词汇,例如汉语中的“纸老虎”直译成“papertiger”,外国人看起来不但深明其义,而且觉得很是传神,所以现已成为正式的英美民族语言。
Literal translation is a direct translation according to the literal meaning of the text. Special words may appear in the process of translation. For example, the "paper tiger" in Chinese is literally translated into "papertiger". Foreigners not only seem to understand its meaning, but also feel very vivid, so it has become a formal British and American national language.
5、灵活借用同义词
5. Flexible borrowing of synonyms
源语言和目标语言有些词汇无论在形式上还是在内容以及词性上都相似,而且在一些语言环境中可以直接相互替换,则译员在笔译翻译的过程中不妨直接借用。
If some words in the source language and the target language are similar in form, content and part of speech, and can be directly replaced with each other in some language environments, translators may wish to borrow them directly in the process of translation.
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