I believe we all know that in translation, every Chinese word corresponds to many different English words, and these words correspond to the usage in different situations. Therefore, it is not easy to translate Chinese into English. Therefore, when translating Chinese into English, Jinan English translation company also has a lot of small skills, which can help you better carry out the translation work.
1、 Incremental translation
指根据英汉 两种语言不同的思维方式、语言习惯和表达方式，在翻译时增添一些词、短句或句子，以便更准确地表达出原文所包含的意义。这种方式多半用在汉译英里。汉语无 主句较多，而英语句子一般都要有主语，所以在翻译汉语无主句的时候，除了少数可用英语无主 句、被动语态或"There be…"结构来翻译以外，一般都要根据语境补出主语，使句子完整。英汉两种语言在名词、代词、连词、介词和冠词的使用方法上也存在很大差别。英语中代词使 用频率较高，凡说到人的器官和归某人所有的或与某人有关的事物时，必须在前面加上物主代词。因此，在汉译英时需要增补物主代词，而在英译汉时又需要根据情 况适当地删减。英语词与词、词组与词组以及句子与句子的逻辑关系一般用连词来表示，而汉语则往往通过上下文和语序来表示这种关系。因此，在汉译英时常常需 要增补连词。英语句子离不开介词和冠词。另外，在汉译英时还要注意增补一些原文中暗含而没有明言的词语和一些概括性、注释性的词语，以确保译文意思的完 整。总之，通过增译，一是保证译文语法结构的完整，二是保证译文意思的明确。
It refers to adding some words, short sentences or sentences in translation according to the different ways of thinking, language habits and expressions of English and Chinese, so as to express the meaning contained in the original text more accurately. This method is mostly used in Chinese translation. There are many Chinese sentences without subject, while English sentences usually have subject. So when translating Chinese sentences without subject, except for a few English sentences without subject, passive voice or "there be In addition to structure translation, the subject should be added according to the context to make the sentence complete. There are also great differences in the use of nouns, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions and articles between English and Chinese. Pronouns are frequently used in English. When it comes to human organs and things owned by or related to someone, we must add the possessive pronoun before them. Therefore, it is necessary to add possessive pronouns in Chinese-English translation, and to delete them appropriately in English-Chinese translation. In English, the logical relations between words, phrases and sentences are usually expressed by conjunctions, while in Chinese, they are usually expressed by context and word order. Therefore, it is often necessary to add conjunctions in C-E translation. English sentences can not be separated from prepositions and articles. In addition, when translating Chinese into English, we should pay attention to adding some implied but not explicit words in the original text and some general and explanatory words to ensure the integrity of the meaning of the translation. In a word, by adding translation, one is to ensure the integrity of the grammatical structure of the target text, and the other is to ensure the clarity of the meaning of the target text.
2、 Omission translation
This is a translation method corresponding to the addition method, that is, to delete the words that do not conform to the thinking habits, language habits and expressions of the target language, so as to avoid the redundancy of the translation. The other way round.
3、 Conversion method
指翻译过程中为了使译文符合目标语的表述方式、方法和习惯而对原句中的词类、句型和 语态等进行转换。具体的说，就是在词性方面，把名词转换为代词、形容词、动词;把动词转换成名词、形容词、副词、介词;把形容词转换成副词和短语。在句子 成分方面，把主语变成状语、定语、宾语、表语;把谓语变成主语、定语、表语;把定语变成状语、主语;把宾语变成主语。在句型方面，把并列句变成复合句，把 复合句变成并列句，把状语从句变成定语从句。在语态方面，可以把主动语态变为被动语态。
It refers to the conversion of parts of speech, sentence patterns and voice in the original sentence in order to make the translation conform to the expressions, methods and habits of the target language. Specifically speaking, in the aspect of part of speech, nouns are transformed into pronouns, adjectives and verbs; verbs into nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions; adjectives into adverbs and phrases. In terms of sentence components, the subject should be changed into adverbial, attribute, object and predicative; the predicate should be changed into subject, attribute and predicative; the attribute should be changed into adverbial and subject; the object should be changed into subject. In the aspect of sentence pattern, coordinate sentences should be changed into compound sentences, compound sentences into coordinate sentences, adverbial clauses into attributive clauses. In the aspect of voice, we can change the active voice into the passive voice.
4、 Positive and negative translation
正译法和反译法：这两种方法通常用于汉译英，偶尔也用于英译汉。所谓正译，是指把句子按照 与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。所谓反译则是指把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成英语。正译与反译常常具有同义的效果，但反译往往更符合英 语的思维方式和表达习惯。因此比较地道。
Positive translation and negative translation: these two methods are usually used in C-E translation, occasionally also used in C-E translation. The so-called positive translation refers to the translation of sentences into English according to the same word order or expression as Chinese. The so-called reverse translation refers to the translation of sentences into English according to the word order or expression opposite to Chinese. Positive translation and negative translation are often synonymous, but reverse translation is often more in line with the way of thinking and habits of expression in English. So it's more authentic.
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